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Proton translocation through FO

The large disc represents the oligomeric ring of FO c-subunits embedded in the membrane (yellow); two hypothetic half-channels at the a- and c-subunits interface are left white. Small circles on the disk are c-subunit carboxyl groups (empty when deprotonated and negatively charged, gray when protonated and neutral); gray circles are protons (higher concentration below the membrane). When charged, carboxyls cannot enter the membrane because of the energy penalty (red) and stay at the protein-protein interface.

 Animation of H+ translocation through Fo

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